Field studies of water and pesticide runoff under simulated (S) or natural (N) rainfall under different tillage practices.
1 Codes of tillage practices are reported in Table I.
2 Hyphens are used to indicate the range of variation of values.
3 Commas are used to separate different years of study.
4 N: natural rainfall; S: simulated rainfall.
5 C: contoured slope; U/D: up-and-down slope.
6 Loc: seed row localisation of the pesticide treatment.
7 Average results for 9 years of study.
8 Numbers in parenthesis indicate the age in years of the soil tillage.
9 M.: maize = residues restituted; Sil.: silage = no crop residues.
10 Inc.: preplant soil incorporation of herbicide.
11 Cov.C: cover crop.
12IVar: variable rainfall intensity; Icons: constant rainfall intensity. a
13 Soy: continuous soybean; S/W: soybean/wheat rotation.