Agron. Sustain. Dev.
Volume 30, Number 2, April-June 2010
|Page(s)||367 - 400|
|Published online||16 April 2010|
Tillage management effects on pesticide fate in soils. A review
Université de Toulouse - École d’ingénieurs de Purpan, Agronomy
Department, 75 voie du
TOEC, BP 57 611,
Toulouse Cedex 3,
2 UMR 1091 INRA/AgroParisTech Environment and Arable Crops, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique/Institut National des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l’Environnement, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France
3 Chambres d’agriculture de Bretagne, Recherche appliquée - Pôle agronomie, avenue du Général Borgnis Desbordes, BP 398 56009 Vannes Cedex, France
* Corresponding author:
Accepted: 4 May 2009
Reducing tillage intensity through the implementation of conservation practices is a way to reach a more sustainable agriculture. Reducing tillage is indeed an efficient way to control soil erosion and to decrease production costs. Nonetheless, the environmental impact of reduced tillage is not well known because conservation techniques may induce strong changes in soil physicochemical properties and biological activity. Knowledge on the fate of applied pesticides under conservation practices is particularly important from this point of view. We review here the advances in the understanding, quantification and prediction of the effects of tillage on pesticide fate in soils. We found the following major points: (1) for most dissipation processes such as retention, degradation and transfer, results of pesticide behaviour studies in soils are highly variable and sometimes contradictory. This variability is partially explained by the multiplicity of processes and contributive factors, by the variety of their interactions, and by their complex temporal and spatial dynamics. In addition, the lack of a thorough description of tillage systems and sampling strategy in most reports hampers any comprehensive interpretation of this variability. (2) Implementation of conservation tillage induces an increase in organic matter content at the soil surface and its gradual decrease with depth. This, in turn, leads to an increase in pesticide retention in the topsoil layer. (3) Increasing retention of pesticides in the topsoil layer under conservation tillage decreases the availability of the pesticides for biological degradation. This competition between retention and degradation leads to a higher persistence of pesticides in soils, though this persistence can be partially compensated for by a more intensive microbial activity under conservation tillage. (4) Despite strong changes in soil physical properties under conservation tillage, pesticide transfer is more influenced by initial soil conditions and climatic conditions than by tillage. Conservation tillage systems such as no-tillage improve macropore connectivity, which in turn increases pesticide leaching. We conclude that more knowledge is needed to fully understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of pesticide in soil, especially preferential flows, in order to improve the assessment of pesticide risks, and their relation to tillage management.
Key words: conventional tillage / conservation tillage / herbicide / retention / degradation / transport / soil carbon
© INRA, EDP Sciences, 2009