|Publication ahead of print|
Agron. Sustain. Dev.
|Published online||29 June 2010|
Pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms in soilless cultures
Université Européenne de Bretagne, France
2 Université de Brest, EA3882 Laboratoire Universitaire de Biodiversité et Écologie Microbienne, IFR148 ScInBioS, ESMISAB, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280 Plouzané, France
3 UMR Santé Végétale 1065, INRA, ENITA de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux, 33175 Gradignan, France
* Corresponding author:
Accepted: 29 March 2010
Soilless cultures were originally developed to control soilborne diseases. Soilless cultures provide several advantages for growers such as greater production of crops, reduced energy consumption, better control of growth and independence of soil quality. However, diseases specific to hydroponics have been reported. For instance, zoospore-producing microorganisms such as Pythium and Phytophthora spp. are particularly well adapted to aquatic environments. Their growth in soilless substrates is favoured by the recirculation of the nutrient solution. These pathogenic microorganisms are usually controlled by disinfection methods but such methods are only effective as a preventive measure. Contrary to biofiltration, active treatments such as UV, heat and ozonisation have the disadvantage of eliminating not only the harmful microorganisms but also the beneficial indigenous microorganisms. Here, we review microbial populations that colonise ecological niches of hydroponic greenhouse systems. Three topics are discussed: (1) the general microflora; (2) the pathogenic microflora that are typical to hydroponic systems; and (3) the non-pathogenic and possibly beneficial microflora, and their use in the control of plant diseases in soilless greenhouse systems. Technical, economic and environmental concerns are forcing the adoption of new sustainable methods such as the use of microbial antagonists. Thus, increased attention is now focused on the role of natural microflora in suppressing certain diseases. Managing disease suppression in hydroponics represents a promising way of controlling pathogens. Three main strategies can be used: (1) increasing the level of suppressiveness by the addition of antagonistic microorganisms; (2) using a mix of microorganisms with complementary ecological traits and antagonistic abilities, combined with disinfection techniques; and (3) amending substrates to favour the development of a suppressive microflora. Increasing our knowledge on beneficial microflora, their ecology and treatments that influence their composition will help to commercialise new, ready-to-use substrates microbiologically optimised to protect plants in sustainable management systems.
Key words: antagonistic agents / biological control / microbial ecology / disinfection methods / hydroponics / recirculating solutions / root rots / suppressive microflora / wilting / zoosporic pathogens
© INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010