Volume 22, Number 7-8, November-December 2002
11th Nitrogen Workshop (Reims 2001)
Page(s) 789 - 800
Agronomie 22 (2002) 789-800
DOI: 10.1051/agro:2002044

Nitrogen fertilizer value of cattle manure applied on soils originating from organic and conventional farming systems

Monika Langmeiera, Emmanuel Frossarda, Michael Kreuzerb, Paul Mäderc, David Duboisd and Astrid Obersona

a  Institute of Plant Sciences, Plant Nutrition, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau, Switzerland
b  Institute of Animal Science, Animal Nutrition, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), ETH Centre, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
c  Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, 5070 Frick, Switzerland
d  Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture (FAL), Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich, Switzerland

(Received 30 October 2001; accepted 28 May 2002)

Nitrogen nutrition of plants in organic farming depends largely on animal manure. In a pot experiment the hypothesis was tested that on a long-term organically managed soil (ORG) characterized by higher soil microbial activity, a greater portion of N applied as cattle manure is mineralized and taken up by plants than on a conventionally managed soil that had received exclusively mineral fertilizers (MIN). Dry matter yields and N uptake by Italian ryegrass were higher by around 20% on ORG than MIN soil. The N utilization of 15N labeled animal manure components and mineral N differed little between ORG and MIN. The major part of the increased N uptake on ORG compared with MIN was due to a significantly greater N supply from ORG soil. The increased capacity of the ORG soil to supply N to plants became more important at later cuts when N was severely limiting plant growth.

Valeur fertilisante azotée d'un lisier de bovin appliqué sur des sols cultivés selon les règles de l'agriculture biologique ou conventionnelle. En agriculture biologique, la nutrition azotée des plantes dépend largement d'une utilisation efficace des engrais de ferme. L'objectif de ce travail était d'évaluer dans une expérience en pots l'aptitude de deux sols provenant d'un essai de longue durée, l'un cultivé selon les règles de l'agriculture biologique et n'ayant reçu que des engrais organiques (ORG) et l'autre cultivé selon les règles de l'agriculture conventionnelle n'ayant reçu que des engrais minéraux (MIN), à alimenter une culture de ray-grass italien après des apports de NO 3NH 4, de fèces avec/sans urine de bovin préalablement marqués à 15N. Le sol ORG est caractérisé par une activité microbiologique plus élevée. Le prélèvement d'azote par le ray-grass était plus élevé d'environs 20 % pour le sol ORG que pour le sol MIN. Peu de différences furent observées entre ORG et MIN pour l'utilisation par la plante de l'azote issu des fèces (17 à 22 % du N apporté), de l'urine (62 à 66 % du N apporté) et de l'engrais minéral (75 à 76 % du N apporté). L'augmentation du prélèvement de N par le ray-grass dans le sol ORG s'explique donc par une plus grande minéralisation de l'azote du sol.

Key words: cattle manure / 15N / organic farming / conventional farming / N fertilizer value

Mots clés : lisier de bovin / 15N / agriculture biologique / agriculture conventionnelle / valeur fertilisante azotée

Correspondence and reprints: Astrid Oberson

Communicated by Sylvie Recous (Laon, France), Bernard Nicolardot (Reims, France)

© INRA, EDP Sciences 2002

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